President U.S. Grant: “Catholicism is A Greater Threat Than the Confederacy”

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Photo Source: Thomas Nast

Since the “alleged” first landing of Spanish explorers in North America during the 1400s, to the creation of the United States controlled by a predominantly English population, the cultural idea of citizenship has remained murky. The idea of citizenship in American culture is not the same as legal citizenship. One can be a legal citizen, but largely not regarded or treated as such within the culture itself. A modern example of a group of people being treated as second-class citizens is the unequal treatment of people of color. However, a group of people whom many Americans would not immediately assume were treated as such are Catholics. Much has changed, and much has stayed the same, but there was a time in American culture that Catholics were seen as an enemy to American democracy and were not treated as full citizens.

Numerous relics left behind throughout American history prove a long-standing fear and support for anti-Catholicism in the American colonies. Prime facets of anti-catholic expression throughout American history include political cartoons, policy, and speeches.

The Americans River Ganges by Thomas Nast, largely known by historians as an anti-catholic political cartoon, is shown above. The cartoon symbolically depicts Roman Catholics as crocodiles who were invading to devour American school children. This not only depicts Catholics as foreign invaders trying to dismantle the country and cause fear, but also further instills fear by involving children. At the time the cartoon was published in 1871, there was a movement of sorts in which religious schools were seeking state funding since there were no laws previously passed to deal with the funding of schools. Thomas Nast, as well as many Republicans at the time, believed that the separation of church and state would disintegrate if government funding were provided to religious schools. Additional details in the background of the cartoon such as the school resembling a fortress depict the level of protection people felt was necessary to protect themselves against the threat of a “Catholic American Theocracy.” The American River Ganges by Thomas Nast is historical evidence of an anti-catholic view in the U.S. that lasted well into the Civil War.

Encourage free schools, and resolve that not one dollar, appropriated for their support, shall be appropriated to any sectarian schools. Resolve that neither the State nor Nation, nor both combined shall support institutions of learning other than those sufficient to afford to every child growing up in the land the opportunity of a good common school education, unmixed with sectarian, pagan, or atheistical dogmas. Leave the matter of religion to the family altar, the Church, and the private school, supported entirely by private contributions. –President U.S. Grant at the Society of the Army of Tennessee Convention in Iowa, 1875. Source: Huffington Post

Above is a quote from a larger speech given by President Ulysses S. Grant in 1875 on his stance regarding the funding of “sectarian” schools. It is important to notice that President Grant is referring mostly to Catholics when he says “sectarian” schools. This quote from a 2 term president of the United States is further proof of how widespread and long-lasting the perception of Catholics has been in the United States. Not only were Catholics treated as if they were invading America, but also as if they were a larger threat than the confederacy by a major president of the United States.

It somewhat makes sense that not much changed from the signing of the Declaration of Independence to the Civil War in regard to the treatment of Catholics, because not much with Catholics at the time had actually changed. Compared to 2018, where according to “A Closer Look at Catholic America” by Michael Lipka, 42% of American Catholics are of an ethnicity or race other than white Americans. Throughout much of American history, especially between the signing of the Declaration and the Civil War, not much changed in the demographics of American Catholics which would have likely been the vehicle for change. It is commonly known throughout history that major shifts in cultural perception can take decades if not centuries to develop and change. This begs the question of why were Catholics seen as different in the first place?

Why Haven’t Catholics Been Treated As Full Citizens Throughout American History?

Analyzing historical expressions of an anti-Catholic American past go to prove that there was, in fact, a real anti-catholic perception perviously held culturally by Americans. However, what the evidence at its surface does not yield, is why Catholics were ever treated negatively in the first place.

“Conciliarism and the American Founding” by Michael D. Breidenbach provides an interesting look inside the history associated with the underlying perceptions of Catholic immigrants in the early American colonies. Breidenbach alludes to the fact that the American perceptions of Catholics at the time did not come out of no where. The American perception of Catholics was not specifically unique to North America, it must not be forgotten that everyone residing in North America other than Native Americans are indeed immigrants. When a new country is beginning to form on the basis of a large population hailing from a different land, the perceptions, world view, and culture of the immigrants are likely to travel along with them.

What made Catholicism so odious to early American Protestants and justified English and colonial penal laws was the pope’s claim (and Catholics’ apparent acceptance of it) that he held temporal power over all civil rulers, including the right to depose a secular authority. The fear of “popery,” then, stemmed in part from the specter of “ecclesiastical tyranny.” -Michael D. Breidenbach on page 486 of “Conciliarism and the American Founding”

In the quote above, Breidenbach is identifying that the central reason Catholics have been feared in American culture is because the pope was claimed to be “superior to all civil rulers.” In relation to the cultural perceptions of the 1870s, it makes sense that Americans would see Catholicism as a threat to democracy because of the Catholic rhetoric involving the pope and his proclaimed powers, which could have struck a nerve in Americans’ pre-existing fear of a theocracy and imposition of their democratic process; however, it is not to say that this fear was justified.

What Were the Implications of This In More Modern Day Chicago?

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Photo Source: Spencer Bailey

Reflecting back on the second-class citizen treatment of Catholics in America, unions can also be seen as proof of an enduring and lasting effect of history on the cultural perception of Catholics. Without much knowledge pertaining to the exact becomings of unions and their relationship with Catholics, their existence as a necessity can still be concluded. If unions were born out of an abuse of factory workers imposed by the factory owners, then it would make sense that the somewhat culturally underprivileged Catholics would fall victim to negative treatment as well. According to Heath W. Carter in “Union Made,” “Many wage earners were faithful churchgoers who eschewed class activism.” Seemingly the only way to negotiate wages and fair treatment was to come together in the formation of unions, even though many Christians “considered it wrong according to [their] conscience to become part of an organization which governed the rights of [their] fellow-man.”

 

Photo Source: Spencer Bailey

Nearby Union Park, the site and home to many of Chicago’s unions (hence the name UNION Park), still exists many unions functioning to this day. One difference however is that the surrounding area is now inhabited by high-income earning people housed in massively expensive apartments. The more east one goes from Union Park, the “nicer” the stores and facilities seem to become, most likely to appeal to the neighborhood’s new inhabitants.

 

 

Photo Source: Spencer Bailey

How Many Mexican Immigrants and People of Color Have to Die Before U.S. Officials Realize There Is a Problem?

Immigrant children, many of whom have been separated from their parents under a new

Photo Source: The Atlantic

According to the International Organization For Migration (An agency of the United Nations), “412 migrant deaths were recorded” along the US-Mexico border in 2017 “compared to 398” recorded the year prior. This comes after a stark 44% drop in border crossings in 2017.

Despite the high death toll associated with crossing the border between the United States and Mexico, the numbers do not even account for the amount of deaths after ICE detainment, or other causes of death that are highly overlooked.

According to CNN, nearly half of the 16 migrant deaths recorded while in immigration detention between December 2015 and April 2017 were a result of inadequate and untimely medical care.

Why is it that ICE continues to treat detained migrants inhumanely? Although detained migrants have allegedly broken U.S. border laws, why is it that their intentions are battered up to “bad hombres” who are just crossing to “smuggle drugs?” Why is it that an entire nation of people, and entire racial group for that matter, are denounced to an inhumane motive while crossing the border and a false perception on behalf of American society? Finally, a food-for-thought question to ask yourself:

Would similar events unfold if there was a rise in illegal crossings between the US-Canada border?

The real purpose of this information is to demonstrate one of the most important domestic political issues facing the United States in 2018: immigration. The reason to consider whether or not similar events would unfold if the immigration debacle were occurring between the US-Canada border is because it sheds light on an important factor worth considering: race.

Considering popular American cultural perception, it is within general public knowledge that a majority of Canada’s population is perceived as being “white,” while a majority of Mexico’s population is “latin or hispanic.” Given the deeply rooted racial bias and racist tendencies embedded in U.S. culture, it could be observed that race likely plays a role in the treatment of migrants crossing the US-Mexico border. Why else would the migrants be treated so poorly? If this was occurring at the US-Canada border with white migrants attempting to cross “illegally” would families be ripped apart, migrants left to die, and needs for medical care be ignored? Maybe. Maybe not. There is no way to know for sure, but the purpose of this question is to provoke thought into whether or not America is as “not-racist” as it thinks it is.

This directly leads to another massive political issue facing the United States: RACE.

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Photo Source: Time

Trayvon Martin, Jordan Davis, Renisha McBride, Eric Garner, John Crawford, Michael Brown, Laquan McDonald, Tamir Rice, Freddie Gray, Jamar Clark, Anton Sterling, Philando Castile, Charles Kinsey.

Above are the names of 13 Black Americans killed by police in the United States from 2012 to 2016 which sparked the Black Lives Matter Movement. The 13 Americans listed are not even a fraction of not only Black Americans being killed while unarmed, but the sheer amount of Black Americans being arrested for pursuing normal everyday acts within their own country.

It should be clear to anyone who has lived through the Black Lives Matter Movement, read about it, studied it, participated in it, or been involved directly in relation to a victim that the United States still has a race problem. Not long ago, many sheltered white Americans would go as far to claim that racism did not exist anymore. It is only now that these important issues are coming back into the forefront of American culture and conversations about race are starting to be had. This is not even to mention the long list of other problems and injustices faced by Black Americans in the United States.

Why is it that, in 2018, the content of someone’s character is still being judged solely on someone’s gender identity, sexual orientation, religion, age, ability, or race? Why is it that Black Americans are more likely and disproportionately killed by police? It is only when we begin to ask questions like these that we begin to arrive at an answer, or if not an answer, a more robust definition of what the search for an answer should consist of.

Are These Issues New to Recent Times? Were They Important Back Then?

Immigration and racial issues are issues that have existed in the United States since the beginning of the country’s history and have remained important up to modern-day. Racial issues between “white” Europeans and people of African descent have long predated the existence of the United States. Racial issues between people of European and African descent are rooted in the history of the forced migration and enslavement of African people. According to the course material curated by Dr. Timothy Gilfoyle in “American Pluralism” at Loyola University Chicago, the modern enslavement of African people can be traced back to the 1440s when Portugal began importing African slaves, but can also be traced all the way back to 800 A.D.

As for immigration, although the United States has not necessarily kept its doors closed to migrants since the very beginning, it has most definitely kept its cultural doors closed. For example, when English settlers were first colonizing North America, they did not prevent other ethnic and religious groups from coming as well, but instead they ostracized them and held false beliefs based on irrational fear, much like what goes on today. As for official regulation of who can come in, the United States has had a long history of regulating certain ethnic groups, anywhere from the Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882 to the “Muslim Ban” of 2017.

How Do Catholics Vote on These Issues?

In relation to Catholics and immigration, it is important to remember the widely held perception of Catholics when they first immigrated to what is now the United States. According to Dr. Timothy Gilfoyle, when Catholics first arrived, many of the existing groups in North America feared a Catholic invasion of such in which Catholics could never assimilate into American Culture. Today, there either is or has been a Catholic in nearly every form of political office, setting an example that rarely, if ever, are fears of someone from a differing background true.

When considering racial issues in the United States, it is not very clear where Catholics have stood in relation to racial issues because it is too divisive. While parts of Catholicism has condoned certain types of enslavement, it also preaches ideals that go against such a concept. As for today, it is a question of relevance whether Catholic voters take their Catholicism into account when thinking of their views on race.

Since Catholic people are very diverse as well as divisive when it comes to voting, it is not necessarily appropriate to assume all Catholics would feel the same way about any given issue.

Sources:

Half of recent immigrant detainee deaths due to inadequate medical care, report finds

Migrant Deaths Remain High Despite Sharp Fall in US-Mexico Border Crossings in 2017

Timeline: The Black Lives Matter movement